In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Characters of Asclepiadaceae 2. Distribution of Asclepiadaceae 3. Economic Importance 4. Affinities 5. Important Types. Plants herbs, shrubs, mostly twiners and rarely trees; leaves opposite, simple, entire margin rarely alternate; inflorescence cymose or racemose; flowers hermaphrodite, pentamerous; calyx of 5 sepals, imbricate; petals 5, gamopetalous, corona arising as outgrowth of petals or stamens; stamens 5, fused with stigmatic disc forming gynostegium; pollens forming pollinia; carpels bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovaries and style free, only stigma fused to form disc, marginal placentation, fruit follicles.

Perennial herbs Asclepias or shrubs Calotropis, Leptadeniaclimbers Cryptostegia, Daemiasucculent Stapelia with latex. Herbaceous, week and climbing or succulent, woody below Calotropiserect, twiner or climbers Cryptostegia cylindrical, rarely hairy and solid, latex present.

Simple, petiolate, exstipulate, entire, opposite rarely whorled, waxy; in Dischidia rafflesiana leaves are modified into pitchers, reduced or absent Periplocasucculent in Hoya.

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Bracteate or ebracteate, pedicellate, complete, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic Ceropegiapentamerous, hypogynous. Sepals 5, polysepalous or gamosepalous-fused near the base, quincuncial aestivation, sometimes valvate. Petals 5, gamopetalous, 5 lobed, twisted aestivation or valvate, corona may be scaly or hairy out growth from petals — corolline corona in Cryptostegia, Cryptolepis or form staminal tube i. Stamens 5, synandrous, gynostegium stamens fused with stigmatic disc to form gynostegiumanthers dithecous, epipetalous, coherent; the pollen grains of each half anther usually agglutinated into granular mass of tetrads or waxy pollen called pollinium Asclepias, Calotropis.

Thus each stamen has two pollinia. The pollinia of two adjacent anther halves are connected together at the black, dot-like gland called corpusculum by appendages called — retinacula.

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The two pollinia of adjacent anther halvestwo retinacula and a corpusculum together form a single translator. So in all there are 5 translators. Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovaries free, superior, enclosed in staminal tube, ovules many on marginal placentation, each carpel is unilocular; style 2, free, distinct; stigmas united to form a pentangular disc with which anthers are fused to form gynostegium.

In includes genera and 2, species of world wide distribution, but mostly confined to tropics and sub-tropics. In India species belonging to 35 genera are found. Some plants like Daemia extensa, Calotropis procera, C.

The source of medicine in the family is latex from which alkaloids are extracted. The roots of Oxystelma esculentum are specific for jaundice. This roots of Pentatropis are used in gonorrhoea. Hemidesmus indicus is used in leucorrhoea, rheumatism and in snake bites. Daemia extensa is used in cough; asthma and diarrhoea. Some species of Asclepias are important as live-stock poison.

The sap of Matelea has been used as an arrow poison. The family Asclepiadaceae is closely allied to the family Apocynaceae, from which it differs in following respects:.

calotropis diagram

In Apocynaceae stamens are not fused with stigma to form gynostegium. Rest of the phylogeny has been discussed under Apocynaceae. The Asclepiadaceae is divided on the basis of pollen characters into 2 sub-families and four tribes:. Pollen granular and in tetrads; translators, spoon-shaped and provided with adhesive disc; e.Copy embed code:.

Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. Natural medicine improves the inner immune system of the human body, hence due to no side effect the herbal drug acts more effectively than the modern medicine.

Calotropis procera Ait. It is recommended as a host plant for butterflies. In the past, the silky hairs were used to stuff pillows.

Calotropis Procera

Calotropis procera was tested as a host for sandalwood, Santalum album L. It resulted in greater growth of sandalwood than all other species tested. Extracts, chopped leaves, and latex have shown great promise as nematicides, in vitro and in vivo. If the leaves are chopped and mixed with other feed, consumption greatly increases with no ill effects. The bark is corky, furrowed, and light gray. A copious white sap flows whenever stems or leaves are cut.

Giant milkweed roots were found to have few branches and reach depths of 1. Leaves are oblongobovate to nearly orbicular, short-pointed to blunt at the apex and have very short petioles below a nearly clasping, heart-shaped base. The leaf blades are light to dark green with nearly white veins. They are 7 to 18 cm long and 5 to 13 cm broad, slightly leathery, and have a fine coat of soft hairs that rub off. The flower clusters are umbelliform cymes that grow at or near the ends of twigs.

The flowers are shallowly campanulate with five sepals that are 4 to 5 mm long, fleshy and variable in color from white to pink, often spotted or tinged with purple. The fruits are inflated, obliquely ovoid follicles that split and invert when mature to release flat, brown seeds with a tuft of white hairs at one end.

Giant milkweed favors open habitat with little competition. This condition is most completely met in overgrazed pastures and rangeland.

Other common habitats are beachfront dunes, roadsides, and isturbed urban lots. The species grows in dry habitat to mm precipitation and sometimes in excessively drained soils in areas with as much as mm of annual precipitation. Calotropis procera may be found in areas up to 1, m in elevation in India.

It strongly recommended in leprosy, hepatic and splenic enlargements, dropsy and worms. The latex is applied to painful joints and swelling, fresh leaves are also use for the same purpose.We have loaded Previous years questions with explanations Like and Follow us on Facebook and Telegram for latest updates Asclepiadaceae is also known as milky weed family. APG stands for Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, which is an informal international group of systematic botanists who work together for an agreement on the taxonomy of flowering plants as per the latest phylogenetic studies.

Propagation type: Fruit dehisced or seed. Distribution: The members of this family are widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. They are especially found in the drier parts of Africa and South America. In India this family is represented by 53 genera and about species.

These plants occur mostly in Himalayas, southern and western India. Dischidiais an epiphytic climber. Sometimes the plants are succulent Hoya or xerophytic with Cactus like habit Stapelia.

Root system: The members of this family have tap root system. Perennial root stock is commonly present and sometimes the roots are fleshy and tuberous. The vascular plants are bi-collateral and the plants contain milky juice present in branching laticiferous tubes.

Leaf: The leaves are opposite, decussate, simple entire and extipulate. In Xerophytes Stapelia leaves are reduced to spines or scales. A thick waxy covering is found on the leaves of Calotropis procera.

The petiole is pulvinous in Cryptostegia grandifolra. In Dischidaone of the pair of leaves is modified into a pitched to collect debris and water. Inflorescence: The inflorescence is usually a dichasial cyme, arising in the leaf axil or sometimes it is a racemose or umbellateas in Asclepias and Calotropis.

Flower: The flowers are perfect, hermaphrodite, bracteates, bracteolate, complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous and hypogynous. The flowers are comparatively large in Stapelia. Calyx: The calyx consists of five sepals which are united below to form short calyx tube. It shows imbricate or valvate type of aestivation. They show valvate or twisted aestivation. The corolla tube is in the form of corona with ring of hairs or scale.All Rights Reserved.

Quotation from this document should cite and acknowledge the contributor. Calotropis gigantea R. Asclepiadaceae, commonly known as milkweed or swallow-wort, is a common wasteland weed Singh et al. Calotropis belongs to Asclepiadaceae or Milkweed or Ak family which includes genera and 2, species of world-wide distribution but most abundant in the sub-tropics and tropics, and rare in cold countries. Comparision of these plants is given in Table 1.

calotropis diagram

Native to India Lindley,Calotropis grows wild up to meters throughout the country Sastry and Kavathekar, on a variety of soils in different climates, sometimes where nothing else grows. Calotropis is used as a traditional medicinal plant Rastogi and Mehrotra ; Oudhia and Dixit ; Oudhia a,b,c,d with unique properties Oudhia and Tripathia. Traditionally alotropis is used alone or with other medicinals Caius to treat common disease such as fevers, rheumatism, indigestion, cough, cold, eczema, asthma, elephantiasis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Das According to Ayurveda, dried whole plant is a good tonic, expectorant, depurative, and anthelmintic.

The dried root bark is a substitute for ipecacuanha. The root bark is febrifuge, anthelmintic, depurative, expectorant, and laxative.

The powdered root used in asthama, bronchitis, and dyspepsia. The leaves are useful in the treatment of paralysis, arthralegia, swellings, and intermittent fevers. The flowers are bitter, digestive, astringent, stomachic, anthelmintic, and tonic Agharkar ; Warrier et al.

Calotropis is also a reputed Homoeopathic drug Ghosh ; Ferrington Calotropis yields a durable fiber commercially known as Bowstring of India useful for ropes, carpets, fishing nets, and sewing thread.

Floss, obtained from seeds, is used for stuffing purposes. Fermented mixture of Calotropis and salt is used to remove the hair from goat skins for production of "nari leather" and of sheep skins to make leather which is much used for inexpensive book-binding Singh et.

Fungicidal and insecticidal properties of Calotropis have been reported Ganapathy and Narayanasamy Allelopathic effects of Calotropis on different agricultural crops have not been well studied. Extracts of different plant parts viz. However, extracts of Calatropis failed to produce any detrimental effects on weeds such as Chenopodium album Melilotus albaMelilotus indicaSphaeranthus indicusand Phalaris minor Oudhia and Tripathi Agharkar, S.

Medicinal plants of Bombay presidency. Scientific Publ. Caius, J. The medicinal and poisonous plants of India. Ferrington, E. Clinical Materia Medica reprint ed. Jain Publ. Kalyani Publishers Ludhiana, India. Oudhia, P. Kolhe, and R. S Tripathi, a. In: Abstract. Tripathi, b. Extended Summaries. Tripathi, and P. Katiyar, b.Calotropis gigantea is known as Arka in Sanskrit. It is widely used in many Ayurvedic treatments, both externally ksharasutra and internally.

It is a very common herb seen widely throughout India. It is called as Madar in English. Often, its another variety Calotropois procera is also used in the same name. Botanical Name — Calotropis Gigantea Linn.

Arka — arka means Sun rays. This herb is as pungent, hot and strong as Sun rays. Toolaphala — fruit has ridges Ksheeraparna — leaves yield milk latex Arkaparna — Parna means leaf. Leaves are strong, hot and pungent. Vikirana — its pollination is by air spreading Asphota — the fruit bursts open. Alarka, Mandara. Reference: Illustrated Dravyaguna Vijnana, Vol. Hence it balances Pitta and Kapha. Arka ksheera — The latex of Madar plant is used in Vamana vomiting therapy and Virechana purgation therapy.

It is capable of inducing vomiting and purgation. Kushtahara — useful in skin diseases Gulmahara — useful in abdominal tumours, bloating Udarahara — used in the treatment of ascites.

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Madar plant is Vatahrut — balances Vata Deepana — improves digestion Sara — eases bowel movements. Shophahara — anti inflammatory Vranahara — brings about quick wound healing Kanduhara — relieves itching Kushtahara — useful in skin diseases Pleehahara — useful in spleen disorders Krumihara — useful in intestinal worm infestation. Madar flower — Vrushya — acts as aphrodisiac Laghu — light to digest Deepana — improves digestion strength Pachana — carminative Arochaka — useful in anorexia Praseka — excessive salivation Arsha — haemorrhoids Kasa shwasahara — useful in respiratory disorders — cough, asthma etc.

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It acts as a good expectorant. Red coloured flowers — Tikta Madhura — sweet, bitter in taste Kushtahara — relieves skin diseases Krumighna — useful in worm infestation Kaphanashana — balances Kapha.

calotropis diagram

Arshahara — useful in haemorrhoids Vishahara — anti toxic Raktapitta — useful in bleeding disorders Sangrahi — useful in diarrhoea Gulma — useful in abdominal tumours, bloating Shvayathuhara — anti inflammatory. Snake bites — In ancient times, for poisonous snake bite, its leaves were chewed and latex was applied over the wound.

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Its latex is applied over the gums to relieve toothache.Calotropis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceaefirst described as a genus in It is native to southern Asia and North Africa. They are commonly known as milkweeds because of the latex they produce. Calotropis species are considered common weeds in some parts of the world.

The flowers are fragrant and are often used in making floral tassels in some mainland Southeast Asian cultures. Fibers of these plants are called madar or mader. Calotropis species are usually found in abandoned farmland. Calotropis gigantea and C. The leaves are sessile and sub-sessile, opposite, ovate, cordate at the base. The flowers are about 1.

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The seeds are compressed, broadly ovoid, with a tufted micropylar coma of long silky hair. Pollination is performed by bees entomophily by the following mechanism:. The stigmas and androecia are fused to form a gynostegium. The pollen are enclosed in pollinia a coherent mass of pollen grains. The pollinia are attached to an adhesive glandular disc at the stigmatic angle. When a bee lands on one of these, the disc adheres to its legs, and the pollinium is detached from the flower when the bee flies away.

When the bee visits another flower, the flower is pollinated by the adhering pollinium on the bee. Calotropis sussuelasynonym of Hoya imperialis. The milky exudation from the plant is a corrosive poison. Extracts from the flowers of Calotropis procera have shown strong cytotoxic activity. The extracts are also harmful to the eyes. Cattle often stay away from the plants because of their unpleasant taste and their content of cardiac glycosides. The flowers of the plant are offered to the Hindu deities ShivaGaneshaand Hanuman.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Genus of flowering plants. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section needs additional citations for verification. Calotropis procera. Calotropis gigantea. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Brown, Mem. Purdue University. Morris Kupchan; John R.Calotropis procera Aiton W. Aiton [ Apocynaceae ]. Aiton is a spreading shrub or medium-sized tree reaching 2. It has a deep taproot, m deep, and a secondary root system with woody lateral roots that may rapidly regenerate adventitious shoots when the plant is injured. The stems are crooked and covered with a fissured corky bark.

The grey-green leaves are cm long and 2. The flowers are pentamerous, small, cream or greenish white at the base and purple violet at the extremity of the lobes. The fruit is a fleshy and inflated, up to 10 cm or more in diameter Orwa et al.

The stems yield a fibre useful for making ropes, bags, nets and paper Orwa et al. The seeds contain a white silky floss that is a potential silk replacer Batello et al. The wood is valuable as a timber and fuel Orwa et al. The milky sap latex is renowned for its ethno-medicinal properties Batello et al. Calotropis yields 90 t of biomass twice a year and is a potential source of renewable energy Parsons et al.

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Calotropis is also used as fodder. Young pods, senescing leaves and flowers can be fed to goats, camels, and sheep more rarely to cattle in times of scarcity. The latex contains toxic components that may be harmful to livestock see Potential Constraints on the "Nutritional aspects" tab. It spread on an arc expanding from north western Africa Mauritania, Senegalthrough the Arabian Peninsula and Middle-East to the Indian subcontinent. Calotropis is found from sea level up to an altitude of m in semi-arid conditions to mm annual rainfall on sandy soils.

However, it can withstand a wide range of soil textures. It is tolerant of soil salinity and of beach front salt spray. On excessively drained soils, it can withstand up to mm annual rainfall. It quickly becomes established in open habitats with little competition, along degraded roadsides, lagoon edges and in overgrazed native pastures and rangelands Orwa et al.

calotropis diagram

When calotropis is damaged, it readily develops suckers from the roots Parsons et al. Calotropis seeds are spread by wind and animals and may be transported long distances in flood waters Parsons et al. It can be a serious weed in pastures, overgrazed rangelands, and poorly managed hay fields Francis, In places where the number of calotropis is small, it is recommended to remove the tree mechanically together with its deep tap-root and lateral roots to prevent the growth of suckers.

Light competition with tall weeds, brush, and especially grass may be an efficient way to weaken calotropis and to prevent seed germination Parsons et al. Chemical control is advisable for larger calotropis colonies. Sowing buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris may help controlling calotropis due to its allelopathic toxicity towards calotropis roots Parsons et al.

Calotropis can act as a soil binder and as a nurse crop for more valuable species in afforestation programs Orwa et al. It has been used as source of green manure in rice fields Orwa et al.


Calotropis diagram

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